Fixed carbon is the solid combustible residue that remains after a sample is heated at 900 degrees Celsius for a period of 7 minutes and the volatile matter is expelled. The fixed-carbon content of the sample is then calculated according to the following formulae:
On a dry matter basis:
Fixed Carbon (%) = 100 - Ash(% Dry Basis) - Volatile Matter(% Dry Basis)
On an as-received basis:
Fixed Carbon (%) = 100 - Ash(% As-Received) - Moisture Content(% As-Received) - Volatile Matter(% As-Received)
On a dry ash-free basis:
Fixed Carbon (%) = 100 - Volatile Matter(% Dry Ash-Free Basis)
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Analysis Packages for Fixed CarbonThe Celignis Analysis Package(s) that determine this constituent are listed below:
| Moisture, Ash, Volatile Matter, Fixed Carbon |
| Volatile Matter, Fixed Carbon, Moisture, Ash, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Oxygen, Gross Calorific Value, Net Calorific Value, Chlorine |
Equipment Used for Fixed Carbon Analysis
|Volatile Matter Furnace We use a Carbolite Volatile Matter Furnace to determine the volatile matter and fixed carbon contents of samples.|
|Muffle Furnace A Nabertherm furnace is used for the determination of the ash content of samples and also in the analytical protocol for determining Klason lignin content.|
We use a Memmert UF260 oven to determine moisture content according to standard EN methods.