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Analysis of Cellulosic Biomass
analysis

Lignocellulosic biomass mostly contains the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Modern technologies exist for the conversion of this biomass to biofuels and chemicals. The fuels that are produced are often referred to as cellulosic fuels (e.g. cellulosic ethanol) or second-generation biofuels.

There are a number of different processes by which cellulosic fuels can be produced. When a hydrolysis technology is used (e.g. enzymatic hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis) the most important compositional parameters are those relating to the lignocellulosic composition of the sample. Celignis can characterise biomass samples for a variety of different lignocellulosic constituents as listed below:

Analytes Determined






analysis

Innovative, High Quality Analysis Methods


For wet chemical anaysis all of our analyses are carried out in duplicate for each sample and we take pride in the high levels of precision in our work.

As well as being able to characterise samples using wet-chemical methods, we also offer near infrared analysis (Celignis Package P11) for prediction of the lignocellulosic composition of samples. This allows us to provide analytical results much more quickly, typically within one day after receiving the sample, and at a lower cost. No other company currently offers predictions of the lignocellulosic composition of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks using near infrared spectroscopy.

We provide an easy to use online ordering system that allows you to select your chosen packages for each sample, and to view the analytical data we provide.

Extractives Content of Biomass


Note that it can be important, for some samples, that the extractives are removed prior to determination of the lignocellulosic composition. This is because extractives can interfere with the acid hydrolysis of the biomass and lead to artifically high results for the lignin content.

For this reason, we recommend that Celignis Package P10 is selected as this includes the exhaustive extraction (water then ethanol) of biomass prior to hydrolysis. Alternatively, one extraction solvent could be used (i.e. ethanol or water) by combining Package P4 (Ethanol) or P5 (Water) with one of the lignocellulosic analysis packages. You are also welcome to extract the samples yourself, for example using a soxhlet apparatus, prior to delivery to Celignis.





Analysis Packages for Cellulosic Biomass


The analysis packages that we offer for the characterisation of lignocellulosic properties, and the analytes that they determine, are listed below. Click on an entry for further details or go to our database to place an order.





P3     Ash Content
Ash

Further Details


P4     Ethanol Extractives
Extractives (Ethanol-Soluble)

Further Details


P5     Water Extractives
Extractives (Water-Soluble)

Further Details


P6     Full Extractives
Extractives (Ethanol-Soluble), Extractives (Water-Soluble), Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol), Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble)

Further Details


P7     Lignocellulosic Sugars
Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose

Further Details


P8     Lignin Content
Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Ash (Acid Insoluble)

Further Details


P9     Lignocellulosic Sugars and Lignin
Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Ash (Acid Insoluble)

Further Details


P10   Sugars, Lignin, Extractives, and Ash
Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Extractives (Ethanol-Soluble), Extractives (Water-Soluble), Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol), Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble) , Ash, Ash (Acid Insoluble)

Further Details


P11   NIR Prediction Package
Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Extractives (Ethanol-Soluble), Ash, Ash (Acid Insoluble)

Further Details


P14   Starch Content
Starch

Further Details


P15   Uronic Acids
Glucuronic Acid, Galacturonic Acid, Mannuronic Acid, Guluronic Acid, 4-O-Methyl-D-Glucuronic Acid

Further Details


P16   Acetyl Content
Acetyl Content

Further Details


P17   Biomass Amino Acids
Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Cystine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tyrosine, Valine

Further Details



When advanced biofuels are made using thermochemical technologies (e.g. pyrolysis and gasification) compositional properties relating to the combustion of the feedstock are also important. Click here to see the services that Celignis offers to characterise these properties.

Examples of Cellulosic Biomass








analysis