biomass mostly contains the biopolymers cellulose
, and lignin
. Modern technologies
exist for the conversion of this biomass to biofuels and chemicals. The fuels that are produced are often referred to as cellulosic fuels (e.g. cellulosic ethanol) or second-generation biofuels.
There are a number of different processes by which cellulosic fuels can be produced. When a hydrolysis technology
is used (e.g. enzymatic hydrolysis, acid hydrolysis) the most important compositional parameters are those relating to the lignocellulosic composition of the sample. Celignis can characterise biomass samples for a variety of different lignocellulosic constituents as listed below:
Sugars and Oligosaccharides
Innovative, High Quality Analysis Methods
For wet chemical anaysis all of our analyses are carried out in duplicate for each sample and we take pride in the high levels of precision
in our work.
As well as being able to characterise samples using wet-chemical methods, we also offer near infrared analysis
(Celignis Package P11
) for prediction of the lignocellulosic composition of samples. This allows us to provide analytical results much more quickly, typically within one day after receiving the sample, and at a lower cost. No other company currently offers predictions of the lignocellulosic composition of cellulosic biofuel feedstocks using near infrared spectroscopy.
We provide an easy to use online ordering system
that allows you to select your chosen packages for each sample, and to view the analytical data we provide.
Extractives Content of Biomass
Note that it can be important, for some samples, that the extractives are removed prior to determination of the lignocellulosic composition. This is because
extractives can interfere with the acid hydrolysis of the biomass and lead to artifically high results for the lignin content.
For this reason, we recommend that Celignis Package P10
is selected as this includes the exhaustive extraction (water then ethanol) of biomass prior to hydrolysis. Alternatively, one extraction solvent could be used (i.e. ethanol or water) by combining Package P4 (Ethanol)
or P5 (Water)
with one of the lignocellulosic analysis packages. You are also welcome to extract the samples yourself, for example using a soxhlet apparatus, prior to delivery to Celignis.
Analysis Packages for Cellulosic Biomass
The analysis packages that we offer for the characterisation of lignocellulosic properties, and the analytes that they determine, are listed below. Click on an entry for further details or go to our database
to place an order.
| Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Ash (Acid Insoluble) |
| Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Extractives (Ethanol-Soluble), Extractives (Water-Soluble), Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol), Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble) , Ash, Ash (Acid Insoluble) |
| Total Sugars, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose, Rhamnose, Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Acid Soluble), Acid Insoluble Residue, Extractives (Ethanol-Soluble), Ash, Ash (Acid Insoluble) |
| Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Cystine, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tyrosine, Valine |
When advanced biofuels are made using thermochemical technologies
) compositional properties relating to the combustion of the feedstock are also important. Click here
to see the services that Celignis offers to characterise these properties.
Examples of Cellulosic Biomass
Agricultural Residues and Wastes
Industrial Residues and Wastes