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Analysis Package P33:
Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis

The ultimate (elemental) analysis of biomass will provide the mass concentrations of the major elements (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur) in the sample.

We determine the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur contents of samples according to the procedures outlined in European Standard EN 15104:2011 ("Solid biofuels - Determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen - Instrumental methods"). We use an Elementar Vario MACRO Cube elemental analyser which has been designed to satisfy the requirements of this method.

We determine the oxygen content by difference according to the formula below:

Oxygen (%) = 100 - Carbon(% Dry Basis) - Hydrogen(% Dry Basis) - Nitrogen(% Dry Basis) -Sulphur(% Dry Basis) - Ash(% Dry Basis)

In order to carry out this calculation we also need to analyse for the ash content of the sample. For this Analysis Package we report the contents of each analyte on a dry-mass basis as well as on an as-received basis and a dry ash-free basis (providing that the as-received moisture content of the sample has also been determined). We use the calculations outlined in European Standard EN 15296:2011 ("Solid biofuels - Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another") to carry out these conversions. Our figures for the oxygen and hydrogen contents of the sample on an as-received basis only consider the oxygen and hydrogen present in the biomass and not that present in the water.

Constituents Determined

For every constituent determined via wet-chemical analysis each sample is analysed in duplicate and we provide the compositional data for each replicate along with the average value and the standard deviation between the duplicates. Our analytical protocols typically provide results with a high level of precision, as detailed here.

Examples of the data reports generated can be viewed on the Celignis Database. Please log on to the guest account using email "" and password "celignis".

Click here to place an order for determining Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis.

Sample Weight Requirements

Under nornal conditions there is a minimum requirement of 3g of sample for this analysis package with a recommended weight of 10+g of sample.

However, it may be possible for us to undertake the anaysis with lower quantities than the minimum specified above. Please email us at to find out.

Equipment Used for Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis