• Analytes Determined at Celignis
    Fixed Carbon

Fixed carbon is the solid combustible residue that remains after a sample is heated at 900 degrees Celsius for a period of 7 minutes and the volatile matter is expelled. The fixed-carbon content of the sample is then calculated according to the following formulae:

On a dry matter basis:

Fixed Carbon (%) = 100 - Ash(% Dry Basis) - Volatile Matter(% Dry Basis)

On an as-received basis:

Fixed Carbon (%) = 100 - Ash(% As-Received) - Moisture Content(% As-Received) - Volatile Matter(% As-Received)

On a dry ash-free basis:

Fixed Carbon (%) = 100 - Volatile Matter(% Dry Ash-Free Basis)

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Analysis Packages for Fixed Carbon

The Celignis Analysis Package(s) that determine this constituent are listed below:

Equipment Used for Fixed Carbon Analysis

Muffle Furnace

A Nabertherm furnace is used for the determination of the ash content of samples and also in the analytical protocol for determining Klason lignin content.

Volatile Matter Furnace

We use a Carbolite Volatile Matter Furnace to determine the volatile matter and fixed carbon contents of samples.

Moisture Oven

We use a Memmert UF260 oven to determine moisture content according to standard EN methods of analysis.

Additional Material

We can determine the Fixed Carbon content of biomass, click here to learn more about our various biomass analysis methods.