Anhydrosugars are defined as sugars in which one or more molecule of water has been eliminated. The 1,6-anhydrosugars involve the
loss of one water molecule and tend to be the most common type. They are formed from the elimination of water from a pair of
hydroxyl groups on the same molecule which results in the formation of a new heterocyclic ring of a different size through an intramolecular glycosidic linkage. This
linkage is usually between the anomeric hydroxyl and the hydroxyl of C-6 in the pyranose
form with both the interacting groups at C-1 and C-5 being axial (1,6-anhydroaldohexoses). However, the intramolecular rings can also form
in other positions (for example there can be 2,3-anhydrosugars and 1,2-anhydrosugars).
The intramolecular linkages in anhydrosugars can be readily opened by the actions of acids, resulting in hydrolysis to the corresponding
aldoses (e.g. from levoglucosan to glucose).
Anhydrosugars are often found in the bio-oil produced in pyrolysis processes and come from the pyrolysis
of cellulose and hemicellulose. Click here to read more about bio-oil and the analysis methods we use to characterise it.
Analysis of Anhydrosugars at Celignis
Using our ion chromatography system we are able to directly analyse a number of anhydrosugars. These are detailed below:
Levoglucosan (also known as 1,6-Anhydro-beta-glucopyranose) is the 1,6-anhydrosugar form of glucose and is formed during the pyrolysis of
carbohydrates such as cellulose. Some pyrolysis technologies specifically target the production of levoglucosan in high yields. In recent years there has been
significant research on developing uses and conversion pathways for levoglucosan. For example, sorbitol
has been synthesised from this anhydrosugar whilst
microorganisms capable of directly fermenting levoglucosan (without requiring hydrolysis to glucose) have been tested.
Cellobiosan (also known as 1,6-Anhydro-beta-cellobiose) is an anhydrosugar formed from the elimination of one water molecule from cellobiose.
This water is
lost from one of the glucose sugars in the disaccharide and a 1,6 glycosidic linkage is formed within that sugar.
After levoglucosan, cellobiosan is the
most abundantly produced product from the pyrolysis of cellulose. As a result of this there has been much work on finding ways in which it can be valorised or
further converted to other products. For instance, cellobiosan can be hydrolysed to glucose using acids or, like
levoglucosan, it can be directly fermented
using some micro-organisms.
Mannosan (also known as 1,6-Anhydro-beta-mannopyranose) is an anhydrosugar formed from the elimination of one water molecule from
mannose. It can be present
in pyrolysis bio-oil in cases where the starting biomass feedstock had mannose residues within its hemicelluloses.
Galactosan (also known as 1,6-Anhydro-beta-galactopyranose) is an anhydrosugar formed from the elimination of one water molecule from
It can be present in pyrolysis bio-oil in cases where the starting biomass feedstock had galactose
residues within its hemicelluloses.
Our Analysis Packages for Anhydrosugars
We currently have three analysis packages for detailing the amount of anhydrosugars in a solution. These are detailed below. Packages P61
and P62 will quantify the amount of four different anhydrosugars (levoglucosan,
cellobiosan, mannosan, and galactosan) in the water extract of
pyrolysis bio-oils or other aqueous solutions. Package P63 analyses the bio-oil
directly for a range of different semi-volatile oxygenated components, but only one anhydrosugar (levoglucosan). Please
click on the links below for further information.
Furthermore, if there are other anyhydrosugars that you would like us to determine then please get in touch.
This conference is being organised under the auspices of the Interreg Northwest Europe-funded THREE C Project, entitled 'Creating and sustaining Charcoal value chains to promote a Circular Carbon economy in NWE Europe'.
The conference will highlight both Irish stakeholders who are currently working in the biochar and carbon products sector, but also partners from the THREE C project (covering Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Belgium, France and Wales, as well as Ireland) who have interesting stories and products to share.
Read about the wide variety of analysis packages we have for biochar
Click here to read about the different analysis packages that Celignis offers for the evaluation on biochars. These analyses cover properties relevant to a wide variety of applications, including soil amendment, carbon sequestration, bioenergy, and biomaterials.
For a short period we are offering two TGA analyses for the price of one!
To celebrate the arrival of our thermogravimetric (TGA) equipment, we are offering, for a limited time period, two TGA analyses for the price of one. Click here to read more about TGA analyses at Celignis and to see the various packages on offer.
To avail of this special offer please mention the code (TGA-AUGUST) in an email or when placing an order via the Celignis Database.
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