Brewers' spent grains (BSG) make up to 85% of a brewery's solid waste, and is either sent to landfill or sold as cheap animal feed supplement. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) obtained from BSG are antioxidants and prebiotics that can be used in food formulations as low-calorie sweeteners and texturisers. The effect of extremely low acid (ELA) catalysis in liquid hot water (LHW) hydrothermal treatment (HTT) was assessed using BSG with dry matter contents of 15% and 25%, achieved by dewatering using a screw press. Batch experiments at low acid loadings of 5, 12.5 and 20 mg/g dry mass and temperatures of 120, 150 and 170 C significantly affected XOS yield at both levels of dry mass considered. Maximum XOS yields of 76.4% (16.6 g/l) and 65.5% (31.7 g/l) were achieved from raw BSG and screw pressed BSG respectively, both at 170 C and using 5 mg acid/g dry mass, after 15 min and 5 min, respectively. These XOS yields were obtained with BSG containing up to 63% less water and temperatures more than 20 C lower than that reported previously. The finding confirms that ELA dosing in LHW HTT allows lowering of the required temperature that can result in a reduction of degradation products, which is especially relevant under high solid conditions. This substantial XOS production intensification through higher solid loadings in HTT not only achieved high product yield, but also provided benefits such as increased product concentrations and decreased process heat requirements.
Commercial production of inulooligosaccharides (IOS) relies largely on chicory roots. However, Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tubers provide a suitable alternative due to their high inulin content and low cultivation requirements. In this study, three inulin-rich substrate preparations from JA were investigated to maximize IOS production, namely powder from dried JA tuber slices (Substrate 1), solid residues after extracting protein from the JA powder (Substrate 2) and an inulin-rich fraction extracted from protein extraction residues (Substrate 3). The preferred temperature, pH and inulin substrate concentration were determined after which enzyme dosage and extraction time were optimized to maximize IOS extraction from the three substrates, using pure chicory inulin as benchmark. Under the optimal conditions, Substrate 3 resulted in the highest IOS yield of 82.3% (w/winulin). However, IOS production from the Substrate 1 proved more efficient since it renders the highest overall IOS yield (mass of IOS per mass of the starting biomass). In the case of co-production of protein and IOS from the JA tuber in a biorefinery concept, IOS production from the Substrate 2 is preferred since it reduces the inulin losses incurred during substrate preparation. For all the inulin-rich substrates studied, an enzyme dosage of 14.8 U/ginulin was found to be optimal at reaction time less than 6 h. JA tuber exhibited excellent potential for commercial production of IOS with improved yield and the possible advantage of a reduced biomass cost.
weet sorghum bagasse displays many characteristics rendering it a promising substrate for lignocellulosic ethanol production. In this study, the steam pretreatment catalyst, enzymatic hydrolysis and the substrate loading for the fermentation were investigated in order to maximise the production of ethanol from the feedstock. The results deemed water as a sufficient pretreatment catalyst since the SO2 impregnation of the biomass did not produce any significant beneficial effects on the yield of ethanol produced. The preferred pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were incorporated in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process using pressed-only (not washed) WIS at a final solid loading of 13% (w/w) that resulted in the targeted ethanol concentration of 39 g/L with a corresponding yield of 82% of the theoretical maximum. Yeast inhibition coupled with significant glucose accumulation was observed at higher solid loadings of 16% and 20%. Ultimately, the sweet sorghum bagasse could be integrated into existing ethanol production regimes to improve the global bioenergy production.
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a crop with excellent potential for application in biorefineries. It can resist drought, pests, and diseases and can thrive well in marginal lands with little fertilizer application. The JA tubers contain considerable quantities of inulin, which is suitable for the production of inulooligosaccharides (IOS), as a high-value prebiotic, dietary fiber. In this study, five JA tuber biorefinery scenarios were simulated in Aspen Plus and further evaluated by techno-economic and sensitivity analyses. Production of IOS, proteins and animal feed was studied in scenarios A and C, applying various biorefinery configurations. Scenario B explored the option of producing only IOS and the sale of residues as animal feed. Scenarios D and E investigated the economic potential of biofuel generation from residues after IOS and protein production by generation of biogas and ethanol respectively, from residues. Based on the chosen economic indicators, scenario B resulted in the lowest minimum selling price (MSP) of 3.91 US$ kg-1 (market price 5.0 US$ kg-1) with correspondingly reduced total capital investment (TCI) and total operating cost (TOC) per mass unit produced of IOS of 18.91 and 2.59 US$ kg-1 respectively, compared with other studied scenarios. Considering the set production scale, it is more profitable when the residues are sold as animal feed instead of being converted into biofuel, due to the capital-intensive nature of the biofuel production processes. The coproduction of protein had a negative impact on the economics of the process as the associated capital and operating expenditure outweighed the associated revenue.
Biobutanol has gained attention as an alternative renewable transportation fuel for its superior fuel properties and widespread applications in chemical industry, primarily as a solvent. Conventional butanol fermentation has drawbacks that include strain degeneration, end-product toxicity, by-product formation, low butanol concentrations and high substrate cost. The complexity of Clostridium physiology and close control between sporulation phase and ABE fermentation has made it demanding to develop industrially potent strains. In addition to the isolation and engineering of superior butanol producing bacteria, the development of advanced cost-effective technologies for butanol production from feedstock like lignocellulosic biomass has become the primary research focus. High process costs associated with complex feedstocks, product toxicity and low product concentrations are few of the several bioprocess challenges involved in biobutanol production. The article aims to assess the challenges in lignocellulosic biomass to biobutanol conversion and identify key process improvements that can make biobutanol commercially viable.
Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It has several characteristics, such as high cellulose and hemicelluloses content that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. But there occur several challenges and limitations in the process of converting rice straw to ethanol. The presence of high ash and silica content in rice straw makes it an inferior feedstock for ethanol production. One of the major challenges in developing technology for bioethanol production from rice straw is selection of an appropriate pretreatment technique. The choice of pretreatment methods plays an important role to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification thereby making the whole process economically viable. The present review discusses the available technologies for bioethanol production using rice straw.