|Lignin (Klason - Protein Corrected)|
|Lignin (Acid Soluble)|
|Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Extractives (Exhaustive - Water then Ethanol)|
|Lignin S/G Ratio|
|Extractives (Water-Insoluble, Ethanol Soluble)|
|Protein Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Carbon Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Hydrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Nitrogen Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Sulphur Content of Acid Insoluble Residue|
|Thiamine (Vitamin B1)|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)|
|Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)|
|Niacin (Vitamin B3)|
|Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)|
|Folate (Vitamin B9)|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)|
|Retinol (Vitamin A)|
|Retinol Acetate (Vitamin A Acetate)|
|Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)|
|Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)|
|Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate)|
|Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1)|
|Ash (Acid Insoluble)|
|Gross Calorific Value|
|Net Calorific Value|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Oxidising)|
|Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Deformation Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Hemisphere Temperature (Reducing)|
|Ash Flow Temperature (Reducing)|
|Thernogram - Under Nitrogen|
|Thermogram - Under Air|
|Specific Surface Area (Nitrogen Gas Adsorption)|
|Specific Surface Area (CO2 Gas Adsorption)|
|BET Isotherm (5 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Pore Volume (Using Nitrogen)|
|Pore Volume (Using CO2)|
|Pore Size Distribution (Using Nitrogen)|
|BET Isotherm (20 Point Using Carbon Dioxide)|
|BET Isotherm (40 Point Using Nitrogen)|
|Average Pore Width (Using Nitrogen)|
|Average Pore Width (Using CO2)|
|Ash Content (815C)|
|Thernogram - Under Nitrogen|
|Thermogram - Under Air|
|Water Holding Capacity|
|Cation Exchange Capacity|
Ash Shrinkage Starting Temperature (SST) - This occurs when the area of the test piece of Sugarcane Bagasse ash falls below 95% of the original test piece area.
Ash Deformation Temperature (DT) - The temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the edges of the test piece occurs due to melting.
Ash Hemisphere Temperature (HT) - When the test piece of Sugarcane Bagasse ash forms a hemisphere (i.e. the height becomes equal to half the base diameter).
Ash Flow Temperature (FT) - The temperature at which the Sugarcane Bagasse ash is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which is half of the test piece at the hemisphere temperature.
At Celignis we can provide you with crucial data on feedstock suitability for AD as well as on the composition of process residues. For example, we can determine the biomethane potential (BMP) of Sugarcane Bagasse. The BMP can be considered to be the experimental theoretical maximum amount of methane produced from a feedstock. We moniotor the volume of biogas produced allowing for a cumulative plot over time, accessed via the Celignis Database. Our BMP packages also involve routine analysis of biogas composition (biomethane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, oxygen). We also provide detailed analysis of the digestate, the residue that remains after a sample has been digested. Our expertise in lignocellulosic analysis can allow for detailed insight regarding the fate of the different biogenic polymers during digestion.
At Celignis we can determine the bulk density of biomass samples, including Sugarcane Bagasse, according to ISO standard 17828 (2015). This method requires the biomass to be in an appropriate form (chips or powder) for density determination.
Our lab is equipped with a Retsch AS 400 sieve shaker. It can accommodate sieves of up to 40 cm diameter, corresponding to a surface area of 1256 square centimetres. This allows us to determine the particle size distribution of a range of samples, including Sugarcane Bagasse, by following European Standard methods EN 15149- 1:2010 and EN 15149-2:2010.
The DIBANET process chain, as a result of its patented pre-treatment stage, has significantly increased the yields of levulinic acid, formic acid, and furfural beyond what was considered to be the state of the art. By fractionating lignocellulosic biomass into its three main polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) it has also allowed for lignin to be recovered and sold as a higher-value product. These developments have meant that the amount of acid hydrolysis residues (AHRs) that have been produced are significantly (up to 88%) less than in the Biofine process. These AHRs are required to provide process heat for DIBANET. Direct combustion is the most efficient means for doing this. If such combustion does not occur and the AHRs are instead used in other processes, e.g. pyrolysis and gasification, then more biomass will need to be purchased to fuel the core DIBANET process. The AHRs have not been proven to be superior to virgin biomass when put through these thermochemical processes. Indeed, many of the results from DIBANET Work Package 4 indicate the opposite. Hence, given that DIBANET, and the modelling of its optimal configuration, is designed on the basis of an integrated process, centred on the core element of the acid hydrolysis of biomass, then combustion is the only viable end use for the AHRs.
This document is the result of the evaluation of biomass feedstocks, from Europe and Latin America, that took place as part of the DIBANET project. That project is co-financed from the 7 th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Demonstration of the European Union. (Title: Enhancing international cooperation between the EU and Latin America in the field of biofuels; Grant Agreement No: 227248-2).
The processing of lignocellulosic materials in modern biorefineries will allow for the
production of transport fuels and platform chemicals that could replace petroleum-derived
products. However, there is a critical lack of relevant detailed compositional information
regarding feedstocks relevant to Ireland and Irish conditions. This research has involved the
collection, preparation, and the analysis, with a high level of precision and accuracy, of a
large number of biomass samples from the waste and agricultural sectors. Not all of the
waste materials analysed are considered suitable for biorefining; for example the total sugar
contents of spent mushroom composts are too low. However, the waste paper/cardboard
that is currently exported from Ireland has a chemical composition that could result in high
biorefinery yields and so could make a significant contribution to Irelandís biofuel demands.